Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th International Conference on Pollution Control & Sustainable Environment Rome, Italy.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Linda Grinberga

Latvia University of Agriculture, Latvia

Keynote: Storm water treatment in a subsurface constructed wetland in a farmyard in Latvia
Conference Series Pollution Control 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Linda Grinberga photo
Biography:

Linda Grinberga is a PhD student in Latvia University of Agriculture. She is a Departmental International Coordinator at the Faculty of Environment and Civil Engineering.

She is a Lecturer and Researcher at the Department of Environmental Engineering and Water Management. She has participated in nine scientific projects.

Abstract:

The water treatment system examined in this study consists of a sedimentation pond as a pre-treatment plant, a water pump and a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland with the surface area of 160 m2. This treatment system was installed at the farm Mezaciruli, Zalenieki County, Jelgava region, in the middle part of Latvia, in August 2014 to improve storm water quality collected from the farmyard and demonstrate applicability of constructed wetland as a suitable treatment option for contaminated surface runoff. During the observation period of 32 months (2014-2017) water quality parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate - nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium - nitrogen (NH4-N), total nitrogen (TN), orthophosphate - phosphorus (PO4-P), and total phosphorus (TP) were monitored and nutrient removal efficiency of the system was calculated. Nutrient concentrations in water samples collected at the inlet and outlet were compared. The monitoring results obtained during this study showed that on average concentrations of TN and TP were reduced by 34% and 82%, respectively. Overall, the subsurface flow constructed wetland displayed a steady decrease for all measured water quality parameters when average monthly nutrient retention values were compared. However, in some cases, an increase in the amount of nutrients leaving the constructed wetland was observed. The wetland retained suspended solids on average by 59% and similarity as for nutrients showed occasional increase in concentration during the non-vegetation period (October to March). This study illustrated that subsurface flow constructed wetland has a potential to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in storm water.

Conference Series Pollution Control 2018 International Conference Keynote Speaker Xiao Zhang photo
Biography:

Xiao Zhang has completed his PhD from Nanjing University of China. He is the former Vice President of Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, a former Director of Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, CMA. He has published more than 300 papers in reputed journals with h-index 57 and has been serving as an Associated Editor of Atmospheric Research and Editorial Board Member of Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology.

 

Abstract:

Is there any connection between climate warming and local aerosol pollution? What is the mechanism of linkage? If climate warming has an impact on local meteorological conditions, how can the specific local meteorological elements, which most closely related to aerosol pollution, be extracted to quantitatively recognize two-way feedback between increase in aerosol pollution and unfavorable meteorological conditions? These have always been matters of special concern in the air pollution research. Here, we analyze long-term variations of an integrated pollution-linked meteorological index (which is approximately and linearly related to aerosol pollution), the extent of changes in vertical temperature differences in the boundary layer (BL) in Beijing and its vicinity (BIV), and northerly surface winds from Lake Baikal during wintertime to evaluate the potential contribution of climate warming to changes in meteorological conditions directly related to local aerosol pollution in this area; this is accomplished using NCEP reanalysis data, surface observations, and long-term vertical balloon sounding observations since 1960. The weather conditions affecting BIV aerosol pollution are found to have worsened since the 1960s as a whole. This worsening is more significant after 2010, with PM2.5 reaching unprecedented high levels in many cities in China, particularly in BIV. The decadal worsening of meteorological conditions in BIV can partly be attributed to climate warming, which is defined by more warming in the higher layers of the BL than the lower layers. This worsening can also be influenced by the accumulation of aerosol pollution, to a certain extent (particularly after 2010), because the increase in aerosol pollution from the ground leads to surface cooling by aerosol–radiation interactions, which facilitates temperature inversions, increases moisture accumulations, and results in the extra deterioration of meteorological conditions. This phenomenon of high aerosol pollution that have a certain degree of influence on the vertical structure of BL is also observed in most of explosive increase of PM2.5 events in BIV during winter of 2013-2017. An explosive event is defined when the PM2.5 concentrations at least doubles within several or 10 h. The root causes of the explosive event are characterized in this studies (onset by transport of aerosol pollution from the south, then radiative cooling by the accumulated aerosol layer that enhances low-level temperature inversion, then the further reduction of turbulence intensity and the height of BL to one-third of the original, then an explosive increase of PM2.5 mass event occurred). The feedback effect of BL meteorological factors was estimated to contribute >70% of such explosive increase in PM2.5 mass. In summary, an important feedback loop is found for climate warming–unfavorable local and regional weather conditions–forming and accumulating aerosol pollution–further intensifying unfavorable weather conditions–more aerosol pollution and associated explosive increase of PM2.5.

  • Environmental Pollution | Water Pollution and Treatment | Marine Pollution | Pollution and Health Effects Agricultural Soil Science | Adsorption Technology | Water Contamination | Agriculture and Environmental Pollution Ground water Pollution | Waste water Technologies

Session Introduction

Nihat Hakan Akyol

Kocaeli University, Turkey

Title: Mobility of atrazine in stable manure-amended agricultural soil
Biography:

Nihat Hakan Akyol has completed his PhD at Kocaeli University. He is working as an Associate Professor in Department of Geological Engineering at Kocaeli University. He has published 12 papers in reputed SCI journals and currently continues high budget projects in Turkey and has been a part of various research projects in United States of America with University of Arizona and Alabama University.

 

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to conduct a series of batch and miscible-displacement experiments to examine the mobility of atrazine herbicide in stable-manure amended agricultural soil. Agricultural soil with 10% w/w stable-manure amendment were used for the objectives. Laboratory studies showed that the high sorption of atrazine was described by rate-limited, non-linear reversible processes for stable-manure amended agricultural soil. This non-ideal transport behavior was most likely due to the fraction of high organic matter content in soil. Flow interruption tests in the column experiments indicated that the rate-limited desorption of atrazine mainly controlled the non-ideal transport of atrazine. Behavior of atrazine in such soils could have important impacts for risk assessment of atrazine-contaminated soil and should be taken into account in the regulation, management, and remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites.

 

Biography:

Dapeng Li has completed his PhD at Harbin Institute of Technology and Postdoctoral studies at Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Science. He is the Professor of Environmental Science and Engineering College at Suzhou University of Science and Technology, mainly engaged in the research of phosphorus migration and transformation in sediments and overlying water in shallow lakes. He is the Director of Collaborative Innovation Centre at Suzhou University of Science and Technology. He has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of reputed journals.

 

Abstract:

To investigate the effect of benthic organisms on migration and conversion of phosphorus, our research carried out a quarterly monitoring at two fixed sample points in Lake Taihu, between October 2017 and April 2018. The main contents of the monitoring were the changes of phosphorus in the sediments, overlying water, interstitial water and microorganism in sediments. Microbial content is characterized by using FDA hydrolase analysis. The SMT sequential extraction method was applied in morphometry of phosphorus contained in surface sediment samples in two different trophic level regions of northeast of Lake Taihu. The sum of all forms of phosphorus, which including NH4Cl-P, Fe-P, Al-P, Org-P, Ca-P, and Res-P is regarded as total phosphorus. Through analysis all of them, we can obtain the migration and conversion of phosphorus in sediments in different seasons. Through the determination and analysis of microbial content and bioavailable phosphorus which including WSP, RDP, AAP, Olsen-P, the effect of microorganisms on migration and conversion of phosphorus can be drawn. Then we can explore the role of benthos in it.

 

Biography:

Rino Dubé has held a position as a Research and Development Officer at the Centre de recherche industrielle du Québec (CRIQ) since 1995. He is a civil engineer by training, specializing in environment and bioprocesses with a Master’s degree from Université Laval. Mr. Dubé carries out laboratory-scale and large-scale technological innovation projects in the agricultural, industrial and municipal wastewater sectors, more recently including treatment of leachates from composting sites and landfills. He has conducted several projects on removal/ transformation of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus). In particular, he has participated actively in the development of biofiltration on organic media for the simultaneously treatment of highly-charged liquids and gases. This work was concretized in twenty pilot systems installed in the field in an industrial context, and has been the subject of several articles and lectures, as well as four invention patents.

 

Abstract:

Leachate treatment and the elimination of landfill gas (LFG) are the main environmental challenges faced by operators in the province of Quebec, Canada. CRIQ, in collaboration with its partners (Université Laval and Université de Sherbrooke), has been working for more than ten years on the development of biofiltration processes for the treatment of leachate and methane (CH4). The leachates treatment is intended to comply with the limit values as prescribed in the regulation (in particular BOD: 65 mg/l, ammonium: 10 mgN_NH4/l, zinc: 0.07 mg Zn/l and phosphorus: 0.3 mg Ptot/l). The process makes it possible to envisage, using methanotrophic bacteria that are unique in their ability to use CH4 as a source of carbon and energy, the treatment of landfill gas. The results obtained in laboratory tests over a period of 16 months for simultaneous treatment (leachate-methane) will be shown for parameters such as BOD5, MES, NH4, NO3-, pH, CH4. The behaviors observed for nitrogen are presented in figures 1 and 2. For the period when the conditions were optimal (250th to 450th day) the nitrification process made it possible to reach N-NH4 transformation rates higher than 95% (output concentration of less than 10 mgN NH4/l). Considering the average concentration of N_NH4 contained in the leachates (680 mg N-NH4/l) as well as the observed transformation rates (nitrification), the elimination of N-NO3 in the biofiltration process would be attributable to the activity methanotrophic bacteria (methanotrophic denitrification). Overall, the results obtained make it possible for landfill operators to make significant gains in terms of sustainable development (passive technology, increased treatment of nitrogen (NH4 and NO3), autothermal biological process), reduction of GHG emissions, etc.). Those work led to a patent in 2017. Future work planned is on-site testing using a prototype.

 

Biography:

Ulises Damian Pepe has completed his Magister in Sanitary and Environmental Engineering at the Institute of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering of University of Buenos Aires. Previously he was a Chemical Engineer at UTN and then he was a Specialist in Sanitary and Environmental Engineering of the Institute of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering of UBA, Buenos Aires.

 

Abstract:

In very extensive geographies and/or with low population densities, the lagoons for the treatment of sewage effluents are of great application and one of the most applied solutions. Its cost of implementation, operation and maintenance makes this alternative one of the most sustainable in relation to the management of sewage drains for localities with these characteristics. Many years designing and evaluating sewage treatment lagoons, makes me reflect on one of the most important design parameters, which is usually estimated slightly and without many considerations: the temperature of the liquid effluent in the lagoon. Most of the time, it is calculated with foreign correlations that are not adapted to our reality and are linked to the average air temperature of the coldest month of the year. Uncertainty that we have when defining this important design parameter makes us to commit one of the most common errors that are observed in its design. Uncertainty is synonymous with oversizing and, in practice, designing larger lagoons than necessary, being as bad as the design of small lagoons. Some of the problems that large lagoons produce: lagoons that do not fill up, erosion and vandalism of their slopes, higher costs for their implementation, etc. In order to limit this uncertainty, this work proposes a rational method that takes into account the flow of energy in the process and the time that the liquid effluent is in the lagoon.

 

Biography:

Mansor Kashir is an Engineering Consultant in the Department of Environmental Protection, Saudi Aramco Oil Company, Saudi Arabia. He completed his BASc in Civil Engineering at University of Tripoli, Libya in 1984; MASc in Geotechnical Engineering at University of Waterloo, Canada in 1990 and; PhD in Geo-Environmental Engineering from University of Western Ontario, Canada in 1998. He is currently managing a number of site investigations and groundwater remedial studies at Saudi Aramco sites; including the use of mechanical, biological, and chemical treatment to remediate contaminated groundwater. Other interests and tasks include developing best environmental protection practices in the area of unconventional gas at Saudi Arabia, defining and treating credible corporate risks that could result from industrial incidents, their treatments and tools of monitoring of these risks.

 

Abstract:

A series of laboratory microcosm experiments and a field-pilot test was performed to evaluate the potential for the in situ chemical oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), in saline, high temperature (greater than 30) groundwater. Groundwater samples from a site in Saudi Arabia were amended in the laboratory portion of the study with the chemical oxidants persulfate, percarbonate and stabilized hydrogen peroxide to evaluate the changes in select hydrocarbons and MTBE concentrations with time. Almost complete degradation of the aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene and trimethylbenzene was found in the groundwater samples amended with persulfate and stabilized hydrogen peroxide whereas the percarbonate-amended samples showed little to no degradation of the target hydrocarbon compounds in the laboratory. Isotopic analyses of the persulfate-amended samples suggested that C-isotope fractionation for xylenes occurred after approximately 30% reduction in concentration with a decline in the δ13C values of xylenes of about 1%. Based on the laboratory results, pilot-scale testing at a Saudi Arabian field site was carried out to verify the persulfate laboratory results. Results obtained from the pilot test indicated that all the target compounds decreased substantially with time. pH of the groundwater remained neutral following injections whereas oxidation-reduction potential remained anaerobic throughout the injection zone with time. Nitrate concentrations decreased within the injection zone suggesting that the nitrate may be consumed by denitrification reactions while sulfate concentrations increased as expected within the reactive zone suggesting that the persulfate was being reduced to sulfate. Overall, the injection of the oxidant persulfate was shown to be an effective approach to treating dissolved aromatic and associated hydrocarbons within the groundwater. The generation of sulfate as a byproduct was an added benefit as the sulfate could be utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) presents within the subsurface to further biodegrade any remaining hydrocarbons. The results of the pilot-study using stabilized hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant suggested that the hydrogen peroxide was not stabilized by citric acid but instead the citric acid enhanced the oxidation of the target compounds including the oxidation of BTEX and MTBE. It appears that the citric acid may be chelating natural metal activators, such as ferric iron, and enhancing their activation function. Analysis of the BTEX compounds indicated a degradation percent of greater than 99% over the course of the study whereas MTBE was degraded by greater than 50%. Analysis of the TBA prior to and post injection suggested that TBA was not generated and in most cases TBA was degraded by greater than 75% during the pilot test. CSIA analysis indicated the 13C within the MTBE and benzene was enriched during the oxidation process. Bacterial analysis showed a dramatic change.

Biography:

P S Jassal has completed his PhD at University of Delhi, Delhi, India and Postdoctoral studies in Department of Chemistry at Maharaja Sayajirao University of  Baroda, Vadodara, India. He is the Vice-Principal of SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India. He has published more than 24 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as Reviewer of journals of international reputation.

 

Abstract:

Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized by the ionic gelation technique by crosslinking the crab shell chitosans with polyanion, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) in the ratio of 1:3 (CS/TPP). 0.5 g chitosan dissolved in 20 ml acetic acid was stirred with cross-linking agent for 24 hours. The settled precipitate is crushed and stored in glass tubes for further use. Adsorption was carried out with 50 ml of metal solution added with 0.013 g chitosan nanoparticles and estimation was done by using hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) with 797 VA Computrace. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for pure crab shell chitosan shows three weight losses one before 202, second after 250 and another after 380 in polymer mass. Chitosan nanoparticles indicate that first thermal event occur at temperature range 50-150, the second degradation stage occur in range of 200-530. The crystalline behaviour and size of particles is determined using XRD studies. The XRD spectrum of nanochitosans shows a broad peak around 2 theta 20.13°. The pure chitosan shows a peak at around 2 theta 19.7 degrees. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for crab shell chitosan spectrum, a band appears at 3430.58 cm-1 was attributing to the -OH and -NH2 groups attributing to stretching vibrations. In nano chitosan a shift from 3430.58 cm-1 to 3436.06 cm-1 was recorded. The SEM images of nano chitosan reveal a spherical shape and chitosan has relatively a rough and uneven structure which exhibited amorphous feature. Studies result show remarkable lowering of toxic metals ion concentration i.e. Cr (VI), Co (II), Ni (II) etc., from the industrial waste.

Biography:

Joshua Ojo obtained his PhD in Engineering Physics from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria in 1995. His broad research interest is in assessment of risks associated with exposure to environmental hazards by various population subgroups. His works include both measurements and modeling of exposure to the hazards. He is particularly interested in toxic and essential elements, pesticides, microwave radiation associated with GSM communication and environmental radioactivity. He is the Visionary and President/CEO of the non-governmental organization, Living Science Foundation, which is dedicated in promoting public health and sustainable development of Nigeria through a holistic management of the environment.

 

Abstract:

Lead, mercury, and selenium are the key elements associated with neurotoxicity, and infants are the most susceptible sub-population. This study evaluated the exposure of babies to Pb, Hg, and Se through breast milk intake in three gold mining areas with different levels of gold mining activities in Nigeria. One hundred and six volunteer mother-baby pairs were recruited as follows: 27 pairs from Yargalma, Zamfara State; 31 pairs from Iperindo, Osun State; and 48 pairs from Ile-Ife, Osun State. Levels of Pb and Se in breast milk samples from all 106 mothers were determined using ICP-MS while Hg levels in the same samples were determined using a direct mercury analyzer. Next, only for the subjects from Ile-Ife, breast milk intakes in babies were determined over a two-week period using the deuterium dose-to-mother stable isotope technique. At Ile-Ife, the daily exposure of babies to lead, mercury and selenium was evaluated as ranging from 0.11–0.65 μg/kg b.w., 0.03–0.48 μg/kg b.w., and 1.37–9.20 μg/kg b.w. respectively. At Iperindo and Yargalma, respectively, the values were 0.06–2.34 μg/kg b.w. and 0.13– 22.6 μg/kg b.w. for lead; 0.01–0.28 μg/kg b.w. and 0.01–0.23 μg/kg b.w. for mercury, and 0.88–29.8 μg/kg b.w. and 0.38–10.2 μg/ kg b.w. for selenium. These can be compared with the benchmark dose for lead suggested by the European food safety authority for developmental toxicity in infants (0.50 μg/kg b.w.) and FAO/WHO daily tolerable intake of 0.57 μg/kg b.w. for mercury.

 

Biography:

Rose Alani has completed her PhD in Environmental/Analytical Chemistry in 2011 at the University of Lagos, Nigeria, after being trained at the Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, ON, Canada, under the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories (CAEAL) requirements as a Trained Analyst. She participated in the 11th summer school on toxic compounds in the environment, in the Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Brno, Czech Republic, in June 2015. She is a Senior Lecturer in the University of Lagos, and currently a Visiting Scientist at the Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO), Barcelona, Spain, from March to August 2018. She has published more than 18 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of reputed journals. She has presented papers in twelve local and eight international conferences. She is a member of local and international professional organizations.

Abstract:

Our previous study on Ogun River at Kara abattoir revealed high concentration of gamma hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) also called lindane, in water and sediment of the river. The use of this river as drinking water for the animals, coupled with the serious short and long-term health effects of lindane prompted this research. In the present study, water and sediment samples were taken from twenty locations in Ogun River and assessed for physico-chemical parameters and seventeen organochlorine pesticides (OCs) which include α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan 1, endosulfan 11, endosulfan sulphate, methoxychlor, α-chlordane, γ-chlordane, DDE, and DDT. Crabs and fish samples from the river were also assessed. Meat parts including beef, blood, heart, kidney, lung, liver, skin, tongue, milk, large intestine, small intestine and urine were also taken from three bulls and three cows; one male goat and one female goat; one ram and one ewe; and their feeds, were assessed for the OCs using gas chromatography/electron capture detector (GC/ECD). Most of the physico-chemical parameters were within WHO limits, except chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at some locations. Generally, OCs was higher in the sediments than in the water, meat parts, animal feeds, fish and crabs. γ-HCH, DDT, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, and endosulfan all exceeded the Canadian water quality guidelines (CWQG) where present. Dieldrin (12.33 ug/Kg) exceeded the Canadian interim sediment quality guideline (ISQGs) of 2.58 ug/Kg while endosulfan sulfate (2.047-42.748 ug/Kg), endosulfan II (3.54- 154.37 ug/Kg), endrin aldehyde (5.98-13.53 ug/Kg) and methoxychlor (1.71-2.86 ug/Kg) were quite high. OCs in other samples was below WHO maximum residue level (MRL). The male animals had more OCs than their females. Sum of OCs were highest in tongues, large intestines, liver, heart, with one bull blood sample having the highest sum concentration of 21.16 ug/Kg.

Biography:

Willabo Miepamo has passion for conservation and preservation of the environment from further deteriorating. He organizes seminars, lectures and workshops to create public awareness on the dangers of groundwater contamination in host communities to multinational oil companies. He has completed his Master’s degree in Hydrogeology from the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. He teaches in the Federal Polytechnic Ekowe and provides solution to groundwater contamination challenges faced by Southern Niger Delta States of Nigeria.

Abstract:

This study on aquifer vulnerability assessment in certain parts of Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Southern Niger Delta, Nigeria, adopted the use of DRASTIC method based on geographic information system (GIS) model to delineate areas susceptible to contamination. Seven hydrogeologic parameters were applied for the aquifer vulnerability evaluations, which include depth to water table, net recharge, soil media, impact of vadose zone, aquifer media, topography, and hydraulic conductivity. Data relating to the seven hydrogeologic parameters of the model were obtained and transformed in the model into seven maps by GIS to develop the DRASTIC vulnerability map which shows the three different forms of aquifer vulnerability namely high, moderate, and low zones. The communities within the high vulnerable zones include Swali, Agudama, Ovum, Igbogene, Okutukutu, Onopa and Okolobiri. Those within the moderate vulnerability zones are Kpansia, Etegwe, Yenezue, Azikoro, Opolo, Tombia, Biogbolo and Akenfa and in the low vulnerability zones, we have Amarata, Yenezuegene, Edepie, Azikoro, Akenfa and Okaka. The high vulnerability zones ranking was attributed to very high depth to water table, high net recharge, high hydraulic conductivity and permeability of gravelly sand in the aquifer media. The moderate vulnerability zones were due to high net recharge, low porosity of silt/clay in vadose zone, silty loam in soil media and high hydraulic conductivity. The low vulnerable zones were influenced by impermeability of clayloam in the soil media, low porosity of silty clay in the vadose zone and low topographic slope percent.

 

Biography:

Chen Jingjing has completed his PhD from Beijing University of Technology. He is a professor and doctoral tutor at Beijing University of Technology. His research activities are focused on policy design and development planning on circular economy, environmental and economic assessment on resources recycling, recycling technology on solid wastes containing strategic resource. He has published more than 50 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an editorial board member of Resources, Conservation & Recycling journal

 

Abstract:

copper, as a popular base metal, has many divergent properties such as good ductility, high thermal and electrical conductivity. With the rapid development of the Chinese economy and the continual increase of demand for copper products, China has become the largest producer and consumer of refined copper in the world. The large amount of consumption not only brings resource pressure, but also causes prominent environmental problems. Although copper can be recycled to alleviate resource pressure, there are significant differences between mining primary copper and recycling scrap copper in view of resources, energy consumption and pollution emissions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted in this study to investigate the total environmental effects of the copper industry. The production of 1t refined copper employing primary ores and secondary resources is analyzed in detail. The results show that the most serious environmental impact of the refined copper was abiotic depletion potential, global warming potential and human toxicity. The environmental impacts are mainly caused by mining and smelting of primary copper by pyrometallurgy. However, for secondary copper, refining and electrolysis are the main factors. According to the normalization result, the total environmental impact of secondary copper is only 1/5 of the primary copper production process, which indicates that the regeneration has better environmental benefits. Thus, it is suggested that the secondary copper should be paid more attention and be developed vigorously. On the other hand, the main processes, which cause environmental impacts, should be promoted technologically.